前言

当我们在使用Spring进行应用程序开发时,不管是Spring mvc,还是Spring Boot,Spring应用上下文刷新过程是一个非常重要的概念。在应用程序启动时,Spring会加载并初始化应用程序上下文,将所有配置的bean加载到内存中,然后将它们注入到应用程序中。

本篇通过源码的解读,介绍Spring应用上下文刷新过程的源码实现,帮助读者更好地理解Spring框架的核心机制。


刷新主流程

Spring应用上下文对应的核心api是:org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext#refresh

@Override
public void refresh() throws BeansException, IllegalStateException {
	synchronized (this.startupShutdownMonitor) {
		// Prepare this context for refreshing.
		// 第一步、应用上下文准备阶段
		prepareRefresh();

		// Tell the subclass to refresh the internal bean factory.
		// 第二步、创建底层IoC容器beanFactory,并返回
		ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory = obtainFreshBeanFactory();

		// Prepare the bean factory for use in this context.
		// 第三步、beanFactory的准备阶段
		prepareBeanFactory(beanFactory);

		try {
			// Allows post-processing of the bean factory in context subclasses.
			// 第四步、beanFactory的后置处理,空方法,由子类覆盖实现内容(以继承的方式进行扩展)。
			postProcessBeanFactory(beanFactory);

			// Invoke factory processors registered as beans in the context.
			// 第五步、调用beanFactory的后置处理器(实现BeanFactoryPostProcessors的bean)
			// 借助PostProcessorRegistrationDelegate#invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors按序调用(PriorityOrdered -> Ordered -> noOrdered)
			// 一类是BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor(继承BeanFactoryPostProcessor接口)的注册后置处理器,另一类是BeanFactoryPostProcessor的常规后置处理器
			invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(beanFactory);

			// Register bean processors that intercept bean creation.
			// 第六步、注册BeanPostProcessor bean到beanFactory(AbstractBeanFactory#beanPostProcessors)中,借助PostProcessorRegistrationDelegate#registerBeanPostProcessors
			registerBeanPostProcessors(beanFactory);

			第七步、创建部分Spring内建单例对象
			// Initialize message source for this context.
			// 初始化内建bean 国际化MessageSource,特定bean的名称:AbstractApplicationContext#MESSAGE_SOURCE_BEAN_NAME
			initMessageSource();

			// Initialize event multicaster for this context.
			// 初始化内建bean 事件广播器,特定bean名称:AbstractApplicationContext#APPLICATION_EVENT_MULTICASTER_BEAN_NAME,默认实现:SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster
			initApplicationEventMulticaster();

			// Initialize other special beans in specific context subclasses.
			// 第八步、当应用上下文刷新,空方法,由子类实现,目前的实现都是web application,没有非web的。可以自行扩展
			onRefresh();

			// Check for listener beans and register them.
			// 第九步、注册事件监听器(第1步是将容器中的事件监听器bean加入到底层的广播器中;第2步是关联bean名称到底层广播器中;第3步是广播早期的事件)
			registerListeners();

			// Instantiate all remaining (non-lazy-init) singletons.
			// 第十步、完成BeanFactory初始化,主要|重要:初始化非延迟单例beans,包括依赖注入
			finishBeanFactoryInitialization(beanFactory);

			// Last step: publish corresponding event.
			// 第十一步、最后一步,调用LifecycleProcessor的onFresh方法(可以扩展,自定义同名bean)及发布ContextRefreshedEvent事件
			finishRefresh();
		}

		catch (BeansException ex) {
			if (logger.isWarnEnabled()) {
				logger.warn("Exception encountered during context initialization - " +
						"cancelling refresh attempt: " + ex);
			}

			// Destroy already created singletons to avoid dangling resources.
			destroyBeans();

			// Reset 'active' flag.
			cancelRefresh(ex);

			// Propagate exception to caller.
			throw ex;
		}

		finally {
			// Reset common introspection caches in Spring's core, since we
			// might not ever need metadata for singleton beans anymore...
			resetCommonCaches();
		}
	}
}

步骤源码

接下来看看refresh每一步的能力

第一步、应用上下文准备阶段

// Prepare this context for refreshing.
// 应用上下文准备阶段
prepareRefresh();
/**
 * Prepare this context for refreshing, setting its startup date and
 * active flag as well as performing any initialization of property sources.
 */
protected void prepareRefresh() {
	// Switch to active.
	// 启动时间
	this.startupDate = System.currentTimeMillis();
	// 应用启动状态位修改
	this.closed.set(false);
	this.active.set(true);

	if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
		if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
			logger.trace("Refreshing " + this);
		}
		else {
			logger.debug("Refreshing " + getDisplayName());
		}
	}

	// Initialize any placeholder property sources in the context environment.
	// 初始化属性配置environment,此方法是空实现
	// 由子类扩展(主要初始化Environment及初始化PropertySource)
	initPropertySources();

	// Validate that all properties marked as required are resolvable:
	// see ConfigurablePropertyResolver#setRequiredProperties
	getEnvironment().validateRequiredProperties();

	// Store pre-refresh ApplicationListeners...
	// 可以临时存储事件监听器,在refresh上下文之前添加的事件监听器(earlyApplicationListeners其它地方没有再用到了,应该是为了重复refresh时临时存储下)
	if (this.earlyApplicationListeners == null) {
		this.earlyApplicationListeners = new LinkedHashSet<>(this.applicationListeners);
	}
	else {
		// Reset local application listeners to pre-refresh state.
        // earlyApplicationListeners不为空时,重置applicationListeners
		this.applicationListeners.clear();
		this.applicationListeners.addAll(this.earlyApplicationListeners);
	}

	// Allow for the collection of early ApplicationEvents,
	// to be published once the multicaster is available...
	// 早期事件临时存储,用于在某些场景如BeanPostProcessor中发布事件的话,此时ApplicationEventMulticaster(发布事件的底层实现)还未初始化,等初始化后multicaster
	// 再发布earlyApplicationEvents中记录的事件
	this.earlyApplicationEvents = new LinkedHashSet<>();
}

第一步主要是准备上下文的刷新,设置启动时间和激活状态,另外也会初始化属性资源及外部化配置类。

有一个点需要注意,earlyApplicationEvents变量,是一个用来存储早期事件的数据结构。后续等发布事件的底层实现实例化后,再基于此进行事件发布。

第二步、创建底层IoC容器

这里会创建默认的IoC容器DefaultListableBeanFactory。

protected ConfigurableListableBeanFactory obtainFreshBeanFactory() {
		// 刷新(销毁当前再增新的)spring应用上下文底层BeanFactory
		refreshBeanFactory();
		// 返回beanFactory
		return getBeanFactory();
}

1、refreshBeanFactory是一个抽象方法,由子类实现,目前有两个实现
第一个:org.springframework.context.support.GenericApplicationContext#refreshBeanFactory

@Override
protected final void refreshBeanFactory() throws IllegalStateException {
	// cas refreshed标识
	if (!this.refreshed.compareAndSet(false, true)) {
		throw new IllegalStateException(
				"GenericApplicationContext does not support multiple refresh attempts: just call 'refresh' once");
	}
	this.beanFactory.setSerializationId(getId());
}

第二个:org.springframework.context.support.AbstractRefreshableApplicationContext#refreshBeanFactory

// 存在BeanFactory时,先进行销毁(销毁容器中所有的bean),再关闭
if (hasBeanFactory()) {
	destroyBeans();
	// 关闭,设置serializationId置为null,beanFactory本身置为null
	closeBeanFactory();
}
try {
	// 创建beanFactory(DefaultListableBeanFactory类)
	DefaultListableBeanFactory beanFactory = createBeanFactory();
	// 将应用上下文的id设置给beanFactory的序列号id上
	beanFactory.setSerializationId(getId());
	// 设置allowBeanDefinitionOverriding(bean定义覆盖)与allowCircularReferences(循环依赖)
	customizeBeanFactory(beanFactory);

	// 重点部分:加载配置的beanDefinition,有几种实现,如xml、注解
	loadBeanDefinitions(beanFactory);
	this.beanFactory = beanFactory;
}
catch (IOException ex) {
	throw new ApplicationContextException("I/O error parsing bean definition source for " + getDisplayName(), ex);
}

2、getBeanFactory()也是一个抽象的方法,两个实现同上,不过都是返回创建的beanFactory。

第三步、beanFactory的准备阶段

// Prepare the bean factory for use in this context.
// beanFactory的准备阶段
prepareBeanFactory(beanFactory);

org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext#prepareBeanFactory

protected void prepareBeanFactory(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory) {
	// Tell the internal bean factory to use the context's class loader etc.
	// 将applicationContext的classLoader传到beanFactory
	beanFactory.setBeanClassLoader(getClassLoader());
	// 设置bean表达式处理器
	beanFactory.setBeanExpressionResolver(new StandardBeanExpressionResolver(beanFactory.getBeanClassLoader()));
	// 添加PropertyEditorRegistrar实现
	beanFactory.addPropertyEditorRegistrar(new ResourceEditorRegistrar(this, getEnvironment()));

	// Configure the bean factory with context callbacks.
	// 配置Aware接口回调的实现(ApplicationContextAwareProcessor)
	beanFactory.addBeanPostProcessor(new ApplicationContextAwareProcessor(this));
	/*
	 * 忽略Aware回调接口作为依赖注入接口,不关心这些Aware接口,只关心其回调回来的对象
	 * 因为就算autowire注入了这些接口(这些接口都继承Aware),还是得不到对应的对象
	 * (例如,注入EnvironmentAware没有意义,它不能得到Environment)
	 * 可以看下ApplicationContextAwareProcessor#postProcessBeforeInitialization,在bean实例化后调用,
	 * 例如实现了EnvironmentAware接口,则回调对应的set方法完成注入Environment。
	 *
	 */
	beanFactory.ignoreDependencyInterface(EnvironmentAware.class);
	beanFactory.ignoreDependencyInterface(EmbeddedValueResolverAware.class);
	beanFactory.ignoreDependencyInterface(ResourceLoaderAware.class);
	beanFactory.ignoreDependencyInterface(ApplicationEventPublisherAware.class);
	beanFactory.ignoreDependencyInterface(MessageSourceAware.class);
	beanFactory.ignoreDependencyInterface(ApplicationContextAware.class);

	// BeanFactory interface not registered as resolvable type in a plain factory.
	// MessageSource registered (and found for autowiring) as a bean.
	// 重要,依赖注入和依赖查找最重要的一个区别,注册4个特殊的bean对象
	// 在其它bean进行依赖注入时,会调用DefaultListableBeanFactory#resolveDependency方法进行特殊获取
	beanFactory.registerResolvableDependency(BeanFactory.class, beanFactory);
	beanFactory.registerResolvableDependency(ResourceLoader.class, this);
	beanFactory.registerResolvableDependency(ApplicationEventPublisher.class, this);
	beanFactory.registerResolvableDependency(ApplicationContext.class, this);

	// Register early post-processor for detecting inner beans as ApplicationListeners.
	// 添加bean后置处理BeanPostProcessor(ApplicationListenerDetector),记录事件bean(是单例并将Listener添加到上下文)
	beanFactory.addBeanPostProcessor(new ApplicationListenerDetector(this));

	// Detect a LoadTimeWeaver and prepare for weaving, if found.
	if (beanFactory.containsBean(LOAD_TIME_WEAVER_BEAN_NAME)) {
		beanFactory.addBeanPostProcessor(new LoadTimeWeaverAwareProcessor(beanFactory));
		// Set a temporary ClassLoader for type matching.
		beanFactory.setTempClassLoader(new ContextTypeMatchClassLoader(beanFactory.getBeanClassLoader()));
	}

	// Register default environment beans.
	/*
		注册单例对象,environment、system-properties-bean-name、os环境变量
	 */
	if (!beanFactory.containsLocalBean(ENVIRONMENT_BEAN_NAME)) {
		beanFactory.registerSingleton(ENVIRONMENT_BEAN_NAME, getEnvironment());
	}
	if (!beanFactory.containsLocalBean(SYSTEM_PROPERTIES_BEAN_NAME)) {
		beanFactory.registerSingleton(SYSTEM_PROPERTIES_BEAN_NAME, getEnvironment().getSystemProperties());
	}
	if (!beanFactory.containsLocalBean(SYSTEM_ENVIRONMENT_BEAN_NAME)) {
		beanFactory.registerSingleton(SYSTEM_ENVIRONMENT_BEAN_NAME, getEnvironment().getSystemEnvironment());
	}
}

该步主要做了3件事:
第1是忽略Aware回调接口注入;
第2注册了4个特殊的对象内建依赖,不允许被依赖查询,只允许被依赖注入);
第3是注册了事件监听器的后置处理器ApplicationListenerDetector实现。

第四步、beanFactory的后置处理(以继承的方式进行扩展)

空方法,由子类覆盖实现内容,完成后置处理

postProcessBeanFactory(beanFactory);

/**
 * Modify the application context's internal bean factory after its standard
 * initialization. All bean definitions will have been loaded, but no beans
 * will have been instantiated yet. This allows for registering special
 * BeanPostProcessors etc in certain ApplicationContext implementations.
 * @param beanFactory the bean factory used by the application context
 */
// org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext#postProcessBeanFactory
protected void postProcessBeanFactory(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory) {
}

第五步、调用beanFactory的后置处理器

这一步说的后置处理器主要指实现BeanFactoryPostProcessors接口的bean

protected void invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory) {
	// 调用beanFactory的后置处理器(all registered BeanFactoryPostProcessor beans)
	// getBeanFactoryPostProcessors()获取通过上下文Add的beanFactoryPostProcessor
    // 借助PostProcessorRegistrationDelegate#invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors按序调用(PriorityOrdered -> Ordered -> noOrdered)
	PostProcessorRegistrationDelegate.invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(beanFactory, getBeanFactoryPostProcessors());

	// Detect a LoadTimeWeaver and prepare for weaving, if found in the meantime
	// (e.g. through an @Bean method registered by ConfigurationClassPostProcessor)
	if (beanFactory.getTempClassLoader() == null && beanFactory.containsBean(LOAD_TIME_WEAVER_BEAN_NAME)) {
		beanFactory.addBeanPostProcessor(new LoadTimeWeaverAwareProcessor(beanFactory));
		beanFactory.setTempClassLoader(new ContextTypeMatchClassLoader(beanFactory.getBeanClassLoader()));
	}
}

继续看下org.springframework.context.support.PostProcessorRegistrationDelegate#invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory, List<BeanFactoryPostProcessor>)

public static void invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(
			ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory, List<BeanFactoryPostProcessor> beanFactoryPostProcessors) {

	// Invoke BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessors first, if any.
	// 记录处理过的bean
	Set<String> processedBeans = new HashSet<>();

	// Spring有一个默认的ConfigurableListableBeanFactory实现DefaultListableBeanFactory,实现了BeanDefinitionRegistry
	if (beanFactory instanceof BeanDefinitionRegistry) {
		BeanDefinitionRegistry registry = (BeanDefinitionRegistry) beanFactory;
		// 常规的BeanFactoryPostProcessor bean
		List<BeanFactoryPostProcessor> regularPostProcessors = new ArrayList<>();
		// BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor的bean
		List<BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor> registryProcessors = new ArrayList<>();

		for (BeanFactoryPostProcessor postProcessor : beanFactoryPostProcessors) {
			// 如果隶属BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor的bean,则加入到registryProcessors中并执行postProcessBeanDefinitionRegistry方法
			// 否则加入常规BeanFactoryPostProcessor集合regularPostProcessors中
			if (postProcessor instanceof BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor) {
				BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor registryProcessor =
						(BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor) postProcessor;
				//回调postProcessBeanDefinitionRegistry
				registryProcessor.postProcessBeanDefinitionRegistry(registry);
				registryProcessors.add(registryProcessor);
			}
			else {
				regularPostProcessors.add(postProcessor);
			}
		}

		// Do not initialize FactoryBeans here: We need to leave all regular beans
		// uninitialized to let the bean factory post-processors apply to them!
		// Separate between BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessors that implement
		// PriorityOrdered, Ordered, and the rest.

		// 临时存储当前处理的BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor(PriorityOrdered -> Ordered -> Other)
		List<BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor> currentRegistryProcessors = new ArrayList<>();

		// First, invoke the BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessors that implement PriorityOrdered.
		/*
		 	查询并处理实现了PriorityOrdered的BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor
		 */
		String[] postProcessorNames =
				beanFactory.getBeanNamesForType(BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor.class, true, false);
		for (String ppName : postProcessorNames) {
			if (beanFactory.isTypeMatch(ppName, PriorityOrdered.class)) {
				currentRegistryProcessors.add(beanFactory.getBean(ppName, BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor.class));
				processedBeans.add(ppName);
			}
		}
		// 借助OrderComparator排序
		sortPostProcessors(currentRegistryProcessors, beanFactory);
		registryProcessors.addAll(currentRegistryProcessors);
		// 循环调用postProcessBeanDefinitionRegistry方法
		invokeBeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessors(currentRegistryProcessors, registry);
		currentRegistryProcessors.clear();

		// Next, invoke the BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessors that implement Ordered.
		/*
			查询并处理实现了Ordered的BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor
		 */
		postProcessorNames = beanFactory.getBeanNamesForType(BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor.class, true, false);
		for (String ppName : postProcessorNames) {
			// 多一个条件!processedBeans.contains(ppName)主要是PriorityOrdered接口继承了Ordered,会把实现了PriorityOrdered的bean也过滤出来
			if (!processedBeans.contains(ppName) && beanFactory.isTypeMatch(ppName, Ordered.class)) {
				currentRegistryProcessors.add(beanFactory.getBean(ppName, BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor.class));
				processedBeans.add(ppName);
			}
		}
		// 借助OrderComparator排序
		sortPostProcessors(currentRegistryProcessors, beanFactory);
		registryProcessors.addAll(currentRegistryProcessors);
		// 循环调用postProcessBeanDefinitionRegistry方法
		invokeBeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessors(currentRegistryProcessors, registry);
		currentRegistryProcessors.clear();

		// Finally, invoke all other BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessors until no further ones appear.
		/*
			查询并处理其它(未实现PriorityOrdered和Ordered)的BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor
		 */
		boolean reiterate = true;
		while (reiterate) {
			reiterate = false;
			postProcessorNames = beanFactory.getBeanNamesForType(BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor.class, true, false);
			for (String ppName : postProcessorNames) {
				if (!processedBeans.contains(ppName)) {
					currentRegistryProcessors.add(beanFactory.getBean(ppName, BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor.class));
					processedBeans.add(ppName);
					reiterate = true;
				}
			}
			// 借助OrderComparator排序
			sortPostProcessors(currentRegistryProcessors, beanFactory);
			registryProcessors.addAll(currentRegistryProcessors);
			// 循环调用postProcessBeanDefinitionRegistry方法
			invokeBeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessors(currentRegistryProcessors, registry);
			currentRegistryProcessors.clear();
		}

		// Now, invoke the postProcessBeanFactory callback of all processors handled so far.
		// 调用postProcessBeanFactory方法(BeanFactoryPostProcess的单方法),上面调用的BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor的postProcessBeanDefinitionRegistry方法
		invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(registryProcessors, beanFactory);
		invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(regularPostProcessors, beanFactory);
	}

	else {
		// Invoke factory processors registered with the context instance.
		// beanFactory不属于BeanDefinitionRegistry的情况,直接循环调用参数beanFactoryPostProcessors的postProcessBeanFactory
		invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(beanFactoryPostProcessors, beanFactory);
	}

	// Do not initialize FactoryBeans here: We need to leave all regular beans
	// uninitialized to let the bean factory post-processors apply to them!
	// 从beanDefinition中获取BeanFactoryPostProcessor类型的bean名称
	String[] postProcessorNames =
			beanFactory.getBeanNamesForType(BeanFactoryPostProcessor.class, true, false);

	// Separate between BeanFactoryPostProcessors that implement PriorityOrdered,
	// Ordered, and the rest.

	/*
		通过beanFactory查询BeanFactoryPostProcessor bean,然后分priorityOrdered、ordered、nonOrdered三种情况依次分别处理
		processedBeans会判断,如果上面已经处理过了就跳过,因为beanFactory.getBeanNamesForType(BeanFactoryPostProcessor.class,)
		会拿到BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor类型的bean.(BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor 实现了 BeanFactoryPostProcessor)
	 */
	List<BeanFactoryPostProcessor> priorityOrderedPostProcessors = new ArrayList<>();
	List<String> orderedPostProcessorNames = new ArrayList<>();
	List<String> nonOrderedPostProcessorNames = new ArrayList<>();
	for (String ppName : postProcessorNames) {
		if (processedBeans.contains(ppName)) {
			// skip - already processed in first phase above
		}
		else if (beanFactory.isTypeMatch(ppName, PriorityOrdered.class)) {
			priorityOrderedPostProcessors.add(beanFactory.getBean(ppName, BeanFactoryPostProcessor.class));
		}
		else if (beanFactory.isTypeMatch(ppName, Ordered.class)) {
			orderedPostProcessorNames.add(ppName);
		}
		else {
			nonOrderedPostProcessorNames.add(ppName);
		}
	}

	/*
		依次执行priorityOrderedPostProcessors、orderedPostProcessorNames、nonOrderedPostProcessorNames对应bean的postProcessorBeanFactory方法

		有点奇怪,priorityOrderedPostProcessors在上面循环时已经拿到BeanFactoryPostProcessor类型,其它两个确是String,然后又在下面循环getBean!
		其实在getBean的时候会实例化、初始化,所以priorityOrdered的bean先实例化、再ordered、再nonOrdered
	 */
	// First, invoke the BeanFactoryPostProcessors that implement PriorityOrdered.
	sortPostProcessors(priorityOrderedPostProcessors, beanFactory);
	invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(priorityOrderedPostProcessors, beanFactory);

	// Next, invoke the BeanFactoryPostProcessors that implement Ordered.
	List<BeanFactoryPostProcessor> orderedPostProcessors = new ArrayList<>(orderedPostProcessorNames.size());
	for (String postProcessorName : orderedPostProcessorNames) {
		orderedPostProcessors.add(beanFactory.getBean(postProcessorName, BeanFactoryPostProcessor.class));
	}
	sortPostProcessors(orderedPostProcessors, beanFactory);
	invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(orderedPostProcessors, beanFactory);

	// Finally, invoke all other BeanFactoryPostProcessors.
	List<BeanFactoryPostProcessor> nonOrderedPostProcessors = new ArrayList<>(nonOrderedPostProcessorNames.size());
	for (String postProcessorName : nonOrderedPostProcessorNames) {
		nonOrderedPostProcessors.add(beanFactory.getBean(postProcessorName, BeanFactoryPostProcessor.class));
	}
	invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(nonOrderedPostProcessors, beanFactory);

	// Clear cached merged bean definitions since the post-processors might have
	// modified the original metadata, e.g. replacing placeholders in values...
	// 处理完清除一些元数据缓存
	beanFactory.clearMetadataCache();
}

该方法说明了一共有两类beanFactory后置处理器的实现bean需要处理。
一类BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor(继承BeanFactoryPostProcessor接口)的注册后置处理器,先调用BeanDefinitionRegistryPostProcessor#postProcessBeanDefinitionRegistry,再调用BeanFactoryPostProcess#postProcessBeanFactory;

另一类BeanFactoryPostProcessor的常规后置处理器,调用BeanFactoryPostProcess#postProcessBeanFactory。

不过不管哪一类,都会按照实现priorityOrdered、ordered、nonOrdered三种情况依次分别处理(借助OrderComparator排序完成排序)。

第六步、注册BeanPostProcessor bean到beanFactory

该步主要注册BeanPostProcessor bean到beanFactory(AbstractBeanFactory#beanPostProcessors属性)中,借助PostProcessorRegistrationDelegate#registerBeanPostProcessors

public static void registerBeanPostProcessors(
			ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory, AbstractApplicationContext applicationContext) {

	// 先根据类型获取所有BeanPostProcessor的beanDefinitionName(这里查询的是beanDefinition,可能还没有实例化)
	String[] postProcessorNames = beanFactory.getBeanNamesForType(BeanPostProcessor.class, true, false);

	// Register BeanPostProcessorChecker that logs an info message when
	// a bean is created during BeanPostProcessor instantiation, i.e. when
	// a bean is not eligible for getting processed by all BeanPostProcessors.
	int beanProcessorTargetCount = beanFactory.getBeanPostProcessorCount() + 1 + postProcessorNames.length;
	beanFactory.addBeanPostProcessor(new BeanPostProcessorChecker(beanFactory, beanProcessorTargetCount));

	// Separate between BeanPostProcessors that implement PriorityOrdered,
	// Ordered, and the rest.
	/*
		遍历postProcessorNames,将BeanPostProcessor bean加入到下面4个集合中(前2个是BeanPostProcessor类型、后2个是String类型,涉及实例化时间)
	 */
	List<BeanPostProcessor> priorityOrderedPostProcessors = new ArrayList<>();
	// internalPostProcessors 记录BeanPostProcessor bean如果是MergedBeanDefinitionPostProcessor的情况
	List<BeanPostProcessor> internalPostProcessors = new ArrayList<>();
	List<String> orderedPostProcessorNames = new ArrayList<>();
	List<String> nonOrderedPostProcessorNames = new ArrayList<>();
	for (String ppName : postProcessorNames) {
		if (beanFactory.isTypeMatch(ppName, PriorityOrdered.class)) {
			BeanPostProcessor pp = beanFactory.getBean(ppName, BeanPostProcessor.class);
			priorityOrderedPostProcessors.add(pp);
			// 如果BeanPostProcessor同时也是一个MergedBeanDefinitionPostProcessor的话
			if (pp instanceof MergedBeanDefinitionPostProcessor) {
				internalPostProcessors.add(pp);
			}
		}
		else if (beanFactory.isTypeMatch(ppName, Ordered.class)) {
			orderedPostProcessorNames.add(ppName);
		}
		else {
			nonOrderedPostProcessorNames.add(ppName);
		}
	}

	/*
		首先排序进行(排序实现类OrderComparator),然后注册到beanFactory#beanPostProcessors有序集合中,依次PriorityOrdered、Ordered、nonOrdered
	 */

	// First, register the BeanPostProcessors that implement PriorityOrdered.
	// 排序
	sortPostProcessors(priorityOrderedPostProcessors, beanFactory);
	registerBeanPostProcessors(beanFactory, priorityOrderedPostProcessors);

	// Next, register the BeanPostProcessors that implement Ordered.
	List<BeanPostProcessor> orderedPostProcessors = new ArrayList<>(orderedPostProcessorNames.size());
	for (String ppName : orderedPostProcessorNames) {
		// 获取bean,会进行bean的实例化、初始化等操作
		BeanPostProcessor pp = beanFactory.getBean(ppName, BeanPostProcessor.class);
		orderedPostProcessors.add(pp);
		if (pp instanceof MergedBeanDefinitionPostProcessor) {
			internalPostProcessors.add(pp);
		}
	}
	sortPostProcessors(orderedPostProcessors, beanFactory);
	registerBeanPostProcessors(beanFactory, orderedPostProcessors);

	// Now, register all regular BeanPostProcessors.
	List<BeanPostProcessor> nonOrderedPostProcessors = new ArrayList<>(nonOrderedPostProcessorNames.size());
	for (String ppName : nonOrderedPostProcessorNames) {
		BeanPostProcessor pp = beanFactory.getBean(ppName, BeanPostProcessor.class);
		nonOrderedPostProcessors.add(pp);
		if (pp instanceof MergedBeanDefinitionPostProcessor) {
			internalPostProcessors.add(pp);
		}
	}
	registerBeanPostProcessors(beanFactory, nonOrderedPostProcessors);

	// Finally, re-register all internal BeanPostProcessors.
	// 排序内部BeanPostProcessors,重新注册
	sortPostProcessors(internalPostProcessors, beanFactory);
	registerBeanPostProcessors(beanFactory, internalPostProcessors);

	// Re-register post-processor for detecting inner beans as ApplicationListeners,
	// moving it to the end of the processor chain (for picking up proxies etc).
	// 重新(beanFactory的prepare阶段add过)注册ApplicationListenerDetector,用于检测内部Bean是否实现了ApplicationListener接口,并将其注册为事件监听器
	// 将ApplicationListenerDetector bean移动到处理器链的末端,即先移除再add到有序集合
	beanFactory.addBeanPostProcessor(new ApplicationListenerDetector(applicationContext));
}

这里注意下,通过beanFactory.getBeanNamesForType(BeanPostProcessor.class,true,false),查询的是beanDefinition,然后进行getBean时创建实例,并处理依赖。
通过priorityOrdered、ordered、nonOrdered依次进行创建与注册。

第七步、创建部分Spring内部单例对象

包括国际化MessageSource 和 事件广播器SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster

// 初始化内建bean 国际化MessageSource,特定bean的名称:AbstractApplicationContext#MESSAGE_SOURCE_BEAN_NAME
initMessageSource();

// Initialize event multicaster for this context.
// 初始化内建bean 事件广播器,特定bean名称:AbstractApplicationContext#APPLICATION_EVENT_MULTICASTER_BEAN_NAME,默认实现:SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster
initApplicationEventMulticaster();

第八步、当应用上下文刷新

// Initialize other special beans in specific context subclasses.
// 当应用上下文刷新,空方法,由子类实现,目前的实现都是web application,没有非web的。可以自行扩展
onRefresh();

第九步、注册事件监听器

registerListeners();

包括3步,
第1步是将容器中的事件监听器bean加入到底层的广播器中;
第2步是关联Bean名称到底层广播器中;
第3步是广播早期的事件,也是比较重要的一步,发布在initApplicationEventMulticaster被调用之前的事件。

/**
 * Add beans that implement ApplicationListener as listeners.
 * Doesn't affect other listeners, which can be added without being beans.
 */
protected void registerListeners() {
	// Register statically specified listeners first.
	// 第1步、将容器中的监听器注册到底层广播器中
	for (ApplicationListener<?> listener : getApplicationListeners()) {
		getApplicationEventMulticaster().addApplicationListener(listener);
	}

	// Do not initialize FactoryBeans here: We need to leave all regular beans
	// uninitialized to let post-processors apply to them!
	// 第2步、获取beanDefinition中的事件监听器bean名称数组加入到底层广播器中
	String[] listenerBeanNames = getBeanNamesForType(ApplicationListener.class, true, false);
	for (String listenerBeanName : listenerBeanNames) {
		getApplicationEventMulticaster().addApplicationListenerBean(listenerBeanName);
	}

	// Publish early application events now that we finally have a multicaster...
	// 第3步、重要,广播早期事件。有可能在initApplicationEventMulticaster之前发布了事件,例如在beanPostProcessor的回调中发布了事件,earlyApplicationEvents记录的就是早期的事件
	// 具体可以看AbstractApplicationContext#publishEvent(Object, ResolvableType)方法,由使用到该集合
	Set<ApplicationEvent> earlyEventsToProcess = this.earlyApplicationEvents;
	this.earlyApplicationEvents = null;
	if (!CollectionUtils.isEmpty(earlyEventsToProcess)) {
		for (ApplicationEvent earlyEvent : earlyEventsToProcess) {
			getApplicationEventMulticaster().multicastEvent(earlyEvent);
		}
	}
}

第十步、完成BeanFactory初始化

该步有个很重要的点,就是初始化非延迟单例beans,包括依赖注入。

/**
 * Finish the initialization of this context's bean factory,
 * initializing all remaining singleton beans.
 */
protected void finishBeanFactoryInitialization(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory) {
	// Initialize conversion service for this context.
	// 初始化特定的bean conversionService,用于类型转换
	if (beanFactory.containsBean(CONVERSION_SERVICE_BEAN_NAME) &&
			beanFactory.isTypeMatch(CONVERSION_SERVICE_BEAN_NAME, ConversionService.class)) {
		beanFactory.setConversionService(
				beanFactory.getBean(CONVERSION_SERVICE_BEAN_NAME, ConversionService.class));
	}

	// Register a default embedded value resolver if no BeanFactoryPostProcessor
	// (such as a PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer bean) registered any before:
	// at this point, primarily for resolution in annotation attribute values.
	if (!beanFactory.hasEmbeddedValueResolver()) {
		beanFactory.addEmbeddedValueResolver(strVal -> getEnvironment().resolvePlaceholders(strVal));
	}

	// Initialize LoadTimeWeaverAware beans early to allow for registering their transformers early.
	// beanDefinition查询LoadTimeWeaverAware进行初始化
	String[] weaverAwareNames = beanFactory.getBeanNamesForType(LoadTimeWeaverAware.class, false, false);
	for (String weaverAwareName : weaverAwareNames) {
		getBean(weaverAwareName);
	}

	// Stop using the temporary ClassLoader for type matching.
	// factory的tempClassLoader置null
	beanFactory.setTempClassLoader(null);

	// Allow for caching all bean definition metadata, not expecting further changes.
	// 缓存beanDefinition名称,不希望被改变,beanDefinitionNames-》frozenBeanDefinitionNames
	beanFactory.freezeConfiguration();

	// Instantiate all remaining (non-lazy-init) singletons.
	// 重要的步骤:实例化、所有的非懒加载的beanDefinition,使用的默认实现DefaultListableBeanFactory
	beanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons();
}

看下beanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons();方法调用,如下:

// org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory#preInstantiateSingletons
@Override
public void preInstantiateSingletons() throws BeansException {
	if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
		logger.trace("Pre-instantiating singletons in " + this);
	}

	// Iterate over a copy to allow for init methods which in turn register new bean definitions.
	// While this may not be part of the regular factory bootstrap, it does otherwise work fine.
	List<String> beanNames = new ArrayList<>(this.beanDefinitionNames);

	// Trigger initialization of all non-lazy singleton beans...
	// 触发初始化所有非懒加载单例bean
	for (String beanName : beanNames) {
		// 返回RootBeanDefinition。如果bean是配置了parent,则递归合并parent的属性到当前的bean中,值得注意的是不管是否存在parent,都会包装成RootBeanDefinition
		RootBeanDefinition bd = getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(beanName);
		// 几个条件同时满足,非抽象、单例、非懒加载
		if (!bd.isAbstract() && bd.isSingleton() && !bd.isLazyInit()) {
			if (isFactoryBean(beanName)) {
				// 如果实现了FactoryBean,则是通过getObject的方式获取实例化对象
				Object bean = getBean(FACTORY_BEAN_PREFIX + beanName);
				if (bean instanceof FactoryBean) {
					FactoryBean<?> factory = (FactoryBean<?>) bean;
					boolean isEagerInit;
					if (System.getSecurityManager() != null && factory instanceof SmartFactoryBean) {
						isEagerInit = AccessController.doPrivileged(
								(PrivilegedAction<Boolean>) ((SmartFactoryBean<?>) factory)::isEagerInit,
								getAccessControlContext());
					}
					else {
						isEagerInit = (factory instanceof SmartFactoryBean &&
								((SmartFactoryBean<?>) factory).isEagerInit());
					}
					if (isEagerInit) {
						getBean(beanName);
					}
				}
			}
			else {
				// 创建bean
				getBean(beanName);
			}
		}
	}

	// Trigger post-initialization callback for all applicable beans...
	// 触发后置处理,当bean初始化后,后置处理器是指实现了SmartInitializingSingleton接口的的bean,如果存在则调用其afterSingletonsInstantiated方法,
	// 此时的bean一定是初始化完成的状态了,是在上面getBean后调用的
	for (String beanName : beanNames) {
		Object singletonInstance = getSingleton(beanName);
		if (singletonInstance instanceof SmartInitializingSingleton) {
			SmartInitializingSingleton smartSingleton = (SmartInitializingSingleton) singletonInstance;
			if (System.getSecurityManager() != null) {
				AccessController.doPrivileged((PrivilegedAction<Object>) () -> {
					smartSingleton.afterSingletonsInstantiated();
					return null;
				}, getAccessControlContext());
			}
			else {
				// 后置处理
				smartSingleton.afterSingletonsInstantiated();
			}
		}
	}
}

至此,Spring应用上下文基本上启动完成,还差最后一步。

第十一步、通知

最后一步,完成上下文Refresh,调用LifecycleProcessor的onFresh方法(可以扩展,自定义同名bean)及发布ContextRefreshedEvent事件

/**
 * Finish the refresh of this context, invoking the LifecycleProcessor's
 * onRefresh() method and publishing the
 * {@link org.springframework.context.event.ContextRefreshedEvent}.
 */
protected void finishRefresh() {
	// Clear context-level resource caches (such as ASM metadata from scanning).
	// 清除资源加载时的内存缓存resourceCaches
	clearResourceCaches();

	// Initialize lifecycle processor for this context.
	// 获取LifecycleProcessor bean(实现Lifecycle),如果不存在则初始化默认的DefaultLifecycleProcessor
	initLifecycleProcessor();

	// Propagate refresh to lifecycle processor first.
	// 调用生命周期函数onRefresh
	getLifecycleProcessor().onRefresh();

	// Publish the final event.
	// 发布上下文刷新事件
	publishEvent(new ContextRefreshedEvent(this));

	// Participate in LiveBeansView MBean, if active.
	LiveBeansView.registerApplicationContext(this);
}

如果应用中添加了Spring应用上下文刷新完成的事件监听器,便会在此时触发回调,添加监听器方式如下:

// 方式一(注册该类)
static class MyApplicationListener implements ApplicationListener<ContextRefreshedEvent> {

    @Override
    public void onApplicationEvent(ContextRefreshedEvent event) {
        println("MyApplicationListener - 接收到 Spring 事件:" + event);
    }
}

// 方式二
@EventListener
public void onApplicationEvent(ContextRefreshedEvent event) {
    println("@EventListener(onApplicationEvent) - 接收到 Spring ContextRefreshedEvent");
}

@EventListener 由 Spring内建beanDefinition EventListenerMethodProcessor实现,后续有机会再展开。


总结

通过对Spring应用上下文刷新整个流程的了解,这会对Spring应用包括SpringBoot启动都会有比较大的帮助,我们知道有一些BeanFacatory及Bean的后置处理器可以帮助我们对bean的实例化、初始化时进行自定义扩展。由于篇幅有限,里面有很多步骤都没有深入探讨,后续有机会再展开。

学习Spring有个小建议,不推荐一上来就debug一步一步的跟踪,很容易就会被绕进去,更推荐对每个点进行依次研究,如BeanFactory后置处理、Bean生命周期、事件、资源管理、国际化、类型转换等等,从点到面进行学习,最后再看整体的实现就会更清晰。